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Midazolam

Generic Name: midazolam (oral) (mye DAZ oh lam)
Brand Name: Versed
Physician reviewed midazolam (oral) patient information - includes midazolam description, dosage and directions.
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Drug Information:
Midazolam is a benzodiazepine (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peen) sedative. Midazolam is used to sedate a person who is having a minor surgery, dental work, or other medical procedure. Midazolam may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Midazolam can slow or stop your breathing, especially if you have recently used a narcotic (opioid) medication. Midazolam is given in a hospital, dentist office, or other clinic setting where your vital signs can be watched closely. You should not take midazolam if you have narrow-angle glaucoma, if you are allergic to cherries, or if you are allergic to midazolam or similar medicines (Valium, Xanax, Ativan, and others). Learn more

Midazolam Side Effects

Midazolam Side Effects

In Summary

Commonly reported side effects of midazolam include: apnea and bradypnea. Other side effects include: variable blood pressure. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.

For the Consumer

Applies to midazolam: injection solution

Other dosage forms:

  • oral syrup

Warning

Injection route (Solution)

Midazolam has been associated with respiratory depression and respiratory arrest, especially when used for sedation in noncritical care settings. Use only in settings that can provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiac function. The initial dose and all subsequent doses should always be titrated slowly. Midazolam injection should not be administered by rapid injection in the neonatal population as severe hypotension and seizures have been reported.

Along with its needed effects, midazolam may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking midazolam:

Less common

  • Aggressiveness
  • agitation
  • anxiety
  • choking
  • confusion
  • decreased awareness or responsiveness
  • decreased urine output
  • difficulty walking, speaking, or writing
  • discouragement
  • dizziness
  • feeling sad or empty
  • fever
  • headache
  • irritability
  • lack of appetite
  • loss of bladder or bowel control
  • loss of consciousness
  • loss of interest or pleasure
  • memory loss
  • muscle twitching
  • nausea
  • nightmares or unusually vivid dreams
  • rapid weight gain
  • seizures
  • severe sleepiness
  • strong urge to urinate
  • swelling of the face, ankles, or hands
  • thirst
  • trouble concentrating
  • trouble sleeping
  • troubled breathing
  • unable to speak
  • unusual drowsiness, dullness, tiredness, weakness, or feeling of sluggishness

Some side effects of midazolam may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

Less common

  • Bleeding, blistering, burning, coldness, discoloration of skin, feeling of pressure, hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, pain, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site

Rare

  • Muscle stiffness

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to midazolam: compounding powder, injectable solution, intravenous solution, nasal spray, oral syrup

General

The most commonly reported side effects with oral formulations include emesis and nausea. Decreased tidal volume/respiratory rate and apnea were most commonly reported with parenteral formulations.

Respiratory

Oral:

Very common (10% or more): Respiratory adverse events (up to 11%)

Common (1% to 10%): Respiratory depression, hypoxia, laryngospasm, upper airway obstruction, rhonchi, congestion

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Sneezing/rhinorrhea

Frequency not reported: Apnea, hypercarbia, desaturation, stridor, hiccough

Parenteral:

Very common (10% or more): Decreased tidal volume/respiratory rate (up to 23.3%), apnea (up to 15.4%)

Common (1% to 10%): Hiccoughs, coughing, desaturation

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Dyspnea, hiccup, laryngospasm, respiratory arrest

Frequency not reported: Respiratory depression

Postmarketing reports: Bronchospasm, hyperventilation, wheezing, shallow respirations, airway obstruction, tachypnea, dysphonia, yawning, continued phonation

Respiratory adverse events included hypoxia, laryngospasm, rhonchi, coughing, respiratory depression, airway obstruction, upper airway congestion, and shallow respirations; these side effects occurred more frequently at higher doses.

Decreased tidal volume/respiratory rate occurred in 23.3% of patients given IV formulations and in 10.8% of patients given IM formulations.

Apnea occurred in 15.4% of patients given IV formulations.

Gastrointestinal

Oral:

Very common (10% or more): Emesis/vomiting (up to 11%)

Common (1% to 10%): Nausea

Frequency not reported: Gagging, salivation

Parenteral:

Common (1% to 10%): Nausea, vomiting

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Constipation, dry mouth

Postmarketing reports: Acid taste, excessive salivation, retching, toothache

Nervous system

Oral:

Common (1% to 10%): Sedation/prolonged sedation, somnolence, depressed levels of consciousness

Frequency not reported: Drooling, dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, dysarthria, loss of balance

Parenteral:

Common (1% to 10%): Headache, oversedation, drowsiness, seizure-like activity

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Movement disorder, ataxia, dizziness, seizure, anterograde amnesia

Frequency not reported: Involuntary movements, hyperactivity, decreased alertness, somnolence, prolonged/postoperative sedation, convulsions/drug withdrawal convulsions, feeling faint, tonic/clonic movements and muscle tremor

Postmarketing reports: Vasovagal episode, retrograde amnesia, grogginess, athetoid movements, lethargy, slurred speech, paresthesia, loss of balance, lightheadedness, feeling of burning, emergence delirium or agitation

Cardiovascular

Oral:

Common (1% to 10%): Bradycardia, bigeminy

Frequency not reported: Increased heart rate, cardiac arrest, heart failure, decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Parenteral:

Common (1% to 10%): Hypotension

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, vasodilation

Frequency not reported: Thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, variations in blood pressure and pulse rate

Postmarketing reports: Bigeminy, premature ventricular contractions, tachycardia, nodal rhythm, hematoma, cardiovascular collapse, cardiovascular reactions, severe cardiorespiratory adverse events

Local

Parenteral:

Common (1% to 10%): IM injection site pain, IV site tenderness/pain during injection/redness/induration

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): IM injection site induration/redness/muscle stiffness, IV site phlebitis

Frequency not reported: Injection site erythema, injection site pain

Postmarketing reports: Hive-like elevation at injection site, warmth or coldness at injection site

Psychiatric

Oral:

Common (1% to 10%): Agitation

Frequency not reported: Dysphoria, disinhibition, excitation, aggression, mood swings, hallucinations, confusion, inappropriate/adverse behavior, behavioral/emotional disorders, euphonia, libido disorders, restlessness, irritability, delusions, anger eruptions, nightmares, psychosis, physical dependency, withdrawal symptoms, abuse, depression (existing, unobserved depression)

Parenteral:

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Aggression/aggressiveness, agitation, anger, hallucination, hostility, confusion/confusional state, euphoric mood/euphoria

Frequency not reported: Rage, excitement/paroxysmal excitement, abuse, physical drug dependence and withdrawal syndrome

Postmarketing reports: Argumentativeness, nervousness, anxiety, restlessness, sleep disturbance, insomnia, nightmares, dysphoria, irritability, tension, mood changes, dreaming during sleep

Dermatologic

Oral:

Common (1% to 10%): Rash

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Pruritus and urticaria

Parenteral:

Frequency not reported: Angioedema

Postmarketing reports: Hives, rash, pruritus, skin reactions

Ocular

Oral:

Frequency not reported: Diplopia, strabismus, blurred vision

Parenteral:

Common (1% to 10%): Nystagmus

Postmarketing reports: Blurred vision, diplopia, pinpoint pupils, visual disturbance, difficulty focusing eyes, cyclic movement of the eyelids

Other

Oral:

Frequency not reported: Fatigue, falls

Parenteral:

Common (1% to 10%): Paradoxical reaction

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Fatigue, falls, assault/physical assault

Postmarketing reports: Prolonged emergence from anesthesia, blocked ears, chills, weakness, swelling, dreaming during emergence

Hypersensitivity

Oral:

Frequency not reported: Hypersensitivity

Parenteral:

Frequency not reported: Hypersensitivity, anaphylactic shock

Postmarketing reports: Allergic reaction, anaphylactoid reactions

Musculoskeletal

Oral:

Frequency not reported: Muscle weakness, fractures

Parenteral:

Frequency not reported: Fractures

Editorial References and Review

Medically reviewed by BestRx Medical Team Last updated on 1/1/2020.

Source: Drugs.com Midazolam